Mustafa Kemal, celebrated by the Turkish State as a Turkish World War I hero and later known as “Ataturk” or “father of the Turks,” led the founding of the Republic of Turkey in 1923 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman Empire and a three-year war of independence. The empire, which at its peak controlled vast stretches of northern Africa, southeastern Europe, and western Asia, had failed to keep pace with European social and technological developments.
The location of İstanbul could be placed in a circle, lying roughly at the intersection of the 41 st parallel and the 29th meridian.
A number of the world’s important cities also lie on, or near the same parallel-cities such as Peking Salonika, Naples Madrid and New York. İstanbul is the place where the two continents Europe and Asia.
It was founded at the point where the Black Sea is linked to the Mediterranean and the islands by the Sea of Marmara.