The Cilo-Sat Mountains, within the Southeastern Hakkari province, are the Eastern extension of the Toros (Taurus) mountain chain, which stretches from West to East along Turkey’s Southern boundaries. This range of mountains in fact forms the Westernmost section of the Himalayan mountain belt. At 4136 meters, the Uludoruk (Resko) summit is the highest in the Cilo mountains; Catalkaya (Samdi), which rises to 3794 meters, crowns the Sat mountains. Resembling the Alps in both general appearance and glacier topography, the Cilo-Sat mountains are the areas in Turkey most affected by glaciers. The high altitudes of the mountains testify to the effects of glacial formation and water erosion. Of the ten uniquely shaped glaciers, the largest, Izbirak, measures five kilometers in length, 500-600 meters in width and reaches 100 meters in depth.
The Northeastern extension of the Central Toros (Taurus) range, the Mercan range, straddles both the Tunceli and Erzincan provinces. Mt. Akbaba, at 3462 meters, is the highest summit in the Mercandagi range. The limestone geology of these mountains creates their very rugged profile.
The location of İstanbul could be placed in a circle, lying roughly at the intersection of the 41 st parallel and the 29th meridian.
A number of the world’s important cities also lie on, or near the same parallel-cities such as Peking Salonika, Naples Madrid and New York. İstanbul is the place where the two continents Europe and Asia.
It was founded at the point where the Black Sea is linked to the Mediterranean and the islands by the Sea of Marmara.