Geologically it is composed predominantly of calciferous rock, and in its top section there is a narrow zone of flysch beneath the limestone cap. The slopes are a combination of limestone and dolomite, with relief forms created by erosion and tectonic activity.
On the littoral side two bays cut deep into the massif: Moščenićka and Lovranska draga, and on the Istrian side is Vela draga. The mountain has a significantly beneficial influence on the climate of the littoral zone, manifested mainly in the richness of vegetation, i.e., thick forests of oriental hornbeam and bay oak and laurel, sweet chestnut, and in particular to the cultivation of famous pleasure gardens and on the development of tourism of Opatija and Lovran.
Equally important are the forests of the littoral – beech and conifers. Growing on the rock faces and in water gullies is a number of endemic plants. Significant areas are covered by rocky pastures.
From the top of Učka there are wonderful panoramic views of Kvarner and the islands, all the way to the north Dalmatian islands and Velebit, towards Istria, Gorski kotar and Slovenia.
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